African media groups by country

Radio, TV and Newspaper by Country

  • A
  • Algeria
  • Algeria’s radio broadcasting stations are state-run – as are the television stations.

    Local Algerian TV is limited to just one station. Electronic media (TV and Radio) in Algeria is state-controlled. However, the printed press is very active and often has much to say about the authorities. Whilst there are no censorship laws as such, legislation states that those insulting or slandering government officials can face prison or hefty fines.

    Algeria’s main TV station is Enterprise Nationale de Television or ENTV. This state-run television station can even be viewed online. Private ownership of TV stations is not allowed in Algeria. In 2002 ENTV formed a collaboration with Khalifa TV, an Algerian TV station in Paris that is privately owned.

    Algerian TV stations that can be viewed online include Telediffusion d’Algerie and Algerie 3 (Thalitah TV). Satellite TV is very popular in Algeria and most hotel TVs are linked to a satellite dish. BRTV is a Berber station that is broadcast from France to Algeria via satellite. Other French, European and Arab channels are also commonly watched. With a relatively wide choice of satellite TV stations you are certain to find something to keep you entertained in your language.

    Algeria has some 17 radio stations. Algerian Radio is a government operated station that broadcasts Channel 1, Channel 2 and Channel 3 as well as several provincial radio stations.

    Other Algerian radio stations and channels are Algeria’s El Bhadja Radio Station, Radio Annaba, Radio El Bahia, Radio Sidi Bel Abbes, El Radio Cirta FM, Radio Coran, Radio Culture, Radio Mitidja, Radio D’Adrar, Radio Ghardaia, Ziban Radio, Frequences Du Reseau FM and Radio Soummam. Kabyle Radio is the only Berber radio station in Algeria.

    Algerian information radio stations provide up-to-date news and discussions. It cannot, however, be guaranteed that the news will not be censored as the government imposes strict control measures over news content. For unrestricted news coverage, you can purchase one of the local newspapers. You can also listen to Algerian radio stationsonline.

  • Local Algerian TV is limited to just one station. Electronic media (TV and Radio) in Algeria is state-controlled. However, the printed press is very active and often has much to say about the authorities. Whilst there are no censorship laws as such, legislation states that those insulting or slandering government officials can face prison or hefty fines.Algeria’s main TV station is Enterprise Nationale de Television or ENTV. This state-run television station can even be viewed online. Private ownership of TV stations is not allowed in Algeria. In 2002 ENTV formed a collaboration with Khalifa TV, an Algerian TV station in Paris that is privately owned.Algerian TV stations that can be viewed online include Telediffusion d’Algerie and Algerie 3 (Thalitah TV). Satellite TV is very popular in Algeria and most hotel TVs are linked to a satellite dish. BRTV is a Berber station that is broadcast from France to Algeria via satellite. Other French, European and Arab channels are also commonly watched. With a relatively wide choice of satellite TV stations you are certain to find something to keep you entertained in your language.
  • B
  • Benin
  • The International Press Institute (IPI) says Benin has one of the region’s “most vibrant media landscapes”.

    According to US-based NGO Freedom House, “a pluralistic and frequently-politicised press publishes articles that are highly critical of government and opposition party leaders.”

    Harsh libel laws have been used against journalists, but the constitution guarantees media freedom. The authorities have suspended newspapers over material deemed to be offensive.

    Benin has dozens of newspapers and periodicals, a state TV channel, a handful of commercial TV channels and scores of state, commercial and local radio stations.

    Radio is the main source of information, particularly in rural areas. The medium is popular because of its use of local languages. Phone-in programmes are particularly popular.

    Poverty, poor infrastructure and a small advertising market translate to patchy newsgathering and inadequate newspaper distribution, especially in the countryside.

    The BBC World Service (101.7), Radio France Internationale and Gabon’s Africa No1 are available on FM in Cotonou.

    Benin was one of the first west African countries to gain an internet connection. There were more than 460,000 internet users by 2014 (Internetlivestats.com).

  • Botswana
  • Print Media

    In the early twenty-first century, there were four print news media outlets in Botswana. The Botswana Daily News , published in English and Setswana, was established in 1964. With a circulation in the 25,000 to 50,000 range, it was the country’s largest newspaper in 2002. Below it, with circulations from 10,000 to 25,000, were the Botswana Guardian , an English weekly established in 1982; The Botswana Gazette , another English weekly; and Mmegi wa Digmang (The Reporter), also a weekly, published in English and Setswana, established in 1984. The Daily News , Mmegi wa Digmang , and the Botswana Guardian were Botswana’s largest and most influential newspapers. The Daily News was state owned. The others were privately owned.

    Press Laws

    The Botswana independence constitution of September 1966 (amended in August and September 1997) guaranteed freedom of expression to all residents. Unlike many African countries, where the ruling party bans opposition views and news from newspapers, radio and television, Botswana has allowed a diversity of views and allowed robust debate in the electronic and print media. As of 2002, journalists were not licensed or required to register. Newspapers and journalists did not have to post bonds to do their work. There was no censorship, but journalists operated according to community standards by avoiding material that would be considered obscene or offensive. Foreign media and journalists also operated freely and openly. The University of Botswana was establishing a Department of Journalism, which will provide training.

    Broadcast Media

    In 2002, Botswana television offered MultiChoice Botswana and Gaberone Television. The latter was owned by Gaberone Broadcasting Corp. and was a private television channel that reached about 20 percent of the population. South African television was also accessible in most of Botswana. As of the early twenty-first century, however, radio remained the most common means of mass communication in Botswana. The number of radio receivers increased from 180,000 in 1994 to 230,000 in 1996, while the number of television receivers rose from 24,000 to 29,000 during the same period. Government-owned Radio Botswana broadcast in English, the official language, and Setswana. Its work was complemented by Radio Botswana 2, an FM channel accessible only in Gaberone, the country’s capital. There were also two private radio stations: GABZ-FM and VA RONA-FM.

    Read more: http://www.pressreference.com/Be-Co/Botswana.html#ixzz3PtnYAXhc

  • Burkina Faso
  • Burkina Faso has more than 200 radio and TV stations, and at least five national newspapers

    Radio is the most popular medium. State broadcaster Radiodiffusion Television du Burkina (RTB) competes with dozens of private and community radio stations.

    Foreign stations such as the BBC, Voice of America and Radio France Internationale also broadcast freely.

    There are a handful of private TV stations and many private publications.

    The Ministry of Communication and Culture regulates the media. Reporters Without Borders says the written press is “relatively free” and criticism is tolerated.

    Many media outlets, particularly private ones, are often critical of the government, although some also practise self-censorship.

    Some journalists are reported to have been threatened or arrested. Inquiries into the 1998 killing of the well-known and respected newspaper journalist Norbert Zongo have yet to bring to book those responsible.

    Only 4.4% of the country’s population have access to the internet, and most of them access it through a mobile device. Broadband subscription costs more than the average yearly income.

  • Burundi
  • Operating in a turbulent political climate, Burundi’s media are subject to self-censorship and occasional government censorship.

    In June 2013 President Nkurunziza approved a new media law which critics condemned as an attack on press freedom. The law forbids reporting on matters that could “undermine national security, public order or the economy”.

    However, diverse political views are aired and the opposition press does function, albeit sporadically.

    Newspaper readership is limited by low literacy levels. Radio is the main source of information for many Burundians. The government runs TV, radio and press outlets.

    BBC World Service broadcasts on 90.2 FM in Bujumbura and on 105.6 in Mount Manga; Radio France Internationale and the Voice of America are also available in the capital.

  • C
  • Cameroon
  • State-run CRTV operates national TV and radio networks and provincial radio stations. There are dozens of private radio and TV stations.

    “It is clear from the diversity of the media and the outspoken reporting style that press freedom is a reality,” said Reporters Without Borders in its 2011 field survey.

    But the watchdog called for media offences to be decriminalised, and said the press can be “bought and exploited” by politicians and businessmen.

    BBC World Service radio is available via local relays (98.4 FM in Yaounde).

    There were nearly 784,000 internet users by December 2011 (Internetworldstats.com). In early 2011, officials ordered telecom companies to suspend mobile services for Twitter, ahead of planned demonstrations against President Biya

  • Cape Verde
  • The Radiotelevisão Caboverdiana is Cape Verde’s first radio and television station broadcasting local programs from Cape Verde, Portugal and Brazil as well as the rest of the world. It is a publicly owned company and enterprise and is located in the Capeverdean capital city of Praia and has a few buildings. The building size is very small, only like local affiliates inNorth America as well as Latin America, Australia and Europe.The station also broadcasts news, sports, television shows and recently broadcasts football or soccer coverages from Portugal and also from Brazil as well as Latin America but rarely around the world. The TV channel is branded as TCV and it is also available in Portugal in the principal cable and IPTV platforms as a premium channel under the name TCV Internacional.
  • Press freedom is guaranteed by law and is generally respected. Much of the media is state-run, but there is an active private press and a growing number of private broadcasters.

    Reporters Without Borders ranked Cape Verde 24th among 180 countries in its 2014 world press freedom index – the second-highest-placed African nation.

    Portuguese public TV and radio for Africa and Radio France Internationale are relayed across Cape Verde, and Portuguese and Brazilian newspapers are available. Local newspapers reach overseas-based Cape Verdeans online.

    Some radio and TV programmes are presented in Crioulo – an African-Portuguese hybrid tongue.

    There were 200,000 internet users by 2014 (Internetlivestats.com).

  • Central African Republic
  • government-owned network, Radiodiffusion Television Centrafricaine, provides domestic TV broadcasting; licenses for 2 private TV stations are pending; state-owned radio network is supplemented by a small number of privately owned broadcast stations as well as a few community radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2007)
    • Chad
    • Radio is the main medium, but state control of many broadcasting outlets allows few dissenting views.

      State-run Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne operates national and regional radio stations. Around a dozen private radio stations are on the air, despite high licensing fees. Some of them are run by non-profit groups. These broadcasters are subject to close official scrutiny.

      The only television station, Tele-Tchad, is state-owned and its coverage favours the government.

      The BBC (90.6) and Radio France Internationale broadcast on FM in the capital.

      Private newspapers critical of the government circulate freely in N’Djamena, but have little impact among the largely rural and illiterate population.

      Nearly 191,000 internet users were online by December 2011 (Internetworldstats.com).

    • Radio, television, and the Internet

      The government-operated Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne and Tele Tchad have broadcasting stations in N’Djamena that broadcast inFrench, Arabic, and seven African languages. Other radio stations are privately owned. In 2002, there were 2 AM and 4 FM radio stations and 1 television station. In 2003, there were an estimated 233 radios and 2 television sets for every 1,000 people.

      The same year, there were 1.7 personal computers for every 1,000 people and 2 of every 1,000 people had access to the Internet.

      Print

      The government press agency publishes the daily news bulletin Info-Tchad (circulation about 1,500 in 1999). Other publications include the weekly N’Djamena Hebdo (1999 circulation 9,500), and the monthly Tchad Et Culture (3,500).

    • Comoros
    • Radio is the dominant medium. The national state-run network competes with regional services and private stations. There is a national TV service and a handful of private TV stations.

      Broadcasts from the neighbouring French island of Mayotte can be picked up in some areas.

      Most papers publish weekly; a feeble advertising market, poverty and poor distribution inhibit circulation. The leading titles are Al-Watwan, published on Grand Comore, and Kwezi, published on Mayotte.

      The authorities have a tight hold on the media. Journalists risk arrest and detention, and newspapers have been suspended and radio stations put off the air over reports deemed offensive to the government.

      Radio France Internationale is relayed on FM in the capital.

      There were nearly 35,000 internet users by December 2011 (Internetworldstats.com). Access is “extremely limited” for economic reasons, says US NGO Freedom House.

    • Congo
    • Government-controlled radio and television stations (with color by SECAM) have been in charge of broadcasting. In 1999, the country had one short-wave, three AM, and twelve FM radio stations. The national radio station La Voix du Congo and one educational station were also in operation. Television Congolaise has been the government-run commercial channel. In 1998, the populace owned about a half-million radios (79 for every 1,000 people) and more than that number of TV sets. Figures for 1999 show twenty television stations operating in the country.In 2002, a complaint emerged through French media from Freddy Molong, chair of the association of community radio stations in the DRC, about the government’s heavy taxation and routine “administrative harassment” of community radio stations, especially in Katanga and Kasai provinces. Local bureaucrats, Molong said, were demanding ten percent of the stations’ gross income and even a ten percent tax on every obituary announcement, along with a back payment of $10,000 for the year 2001, even though most of these radio stations were less than two years old and were non-profit, operated by volunteers on shoestring budgets.Read more: http://www.pressreference.com/Co-Fa/Democratic-Congo.html#ixzz3Pu0cgh8c
    • Congo Democratic Republic of
    • While the constitution provides for freedom of speech and the press, the government has restricted this right in practise. Arrests, murders and other harassment of journalists is frequently reported.In 2009, the freedom of the press global ranking released each year by Reporters Without Borders ranked the Democratic Republic of the Congo at 146 out of 175 countries.[1][2]
    • The Congolese media operate against a backdrop of political power struggles and violent unrest.

      Reporters Without Borders says media workers face arrest, threats and violence. Reporters exposing corruption are at particular risk.

      A local organisation, Journalist In Danger, identified a “growing crackdown” on the media in 2011, which intensified during elections in November. It said the credibility of news organisations had been badly damaged by the behaviour of journalists during the campaign.

      Nonetheless, the press is able to criticise government bodies, and some publications serve as mouthpieces for opposition parties.

      The DR Congo has around 175 newspapers and magazines, 300 radio stations and 50 TV stations.

      Radio is the dominant medium; a handful of stations, including state-run RTNC, broadcast across the country. Three TV channels have near-national coverage.

      The UN Mission in DR Congo (Monuc) and a Swiss-based organisation, Fondation Hirondelle, operate Radio Okapi. The network employs mostly-Congolese staff and aims to bridge political divisions. It is one of DR Congo’s leading stations.

      The BBC broadcasts on FM in Kinshasa (92.7), Lubumbashi (92.0), Kisangani (92.0), Goma (93.3) and Bukavu (102.2).

      Radio France Internationale (RFI), which is widely available on FM, is the most popular news station, according to the US-based Committee to Protect Journalists. The authorities have been known to suspend RFI’s local relays over the station’s coverage.

      By December 2011, there were more than 915,000 internet users (via Internetworldstats.com). Most people use cafes to access the internet. Text messaging services were blocked for a time after disputed elections in late 2011.

    • Cote d’Ivoire
    • Once hailed as a model of stability, during the first decade of the twenty-first century Ivory Coast slipped into the kind of internal strife that has plagued so many African countries.

      An armed rebellion in 2002 split the nation in two. Since then, peace deals have alternated with renewed violence as the country has slowly edged its way towards a political resolution of the conflict.

      For more than three decades after independence under the leadership of its first president, Felix Houphouet-Boigny, Ivory Coast was conspicuous for its religious and ethnic harmony and its well-developed economy.

      Agricultural worker harvests cocoa beansIvory Coast is the world’s leading producer of cocoa, a key ingredient of chocolate

      All this ended when the late Robert Guei led a coup which toppled Felix Houphouet-Boigny’s successor, Henri Bedie, in 1999.

      Mr Bedie fled, but not before planting the seeds of ethnic discord by trying to stir up xenophobia against Muslim northerners, including his main rival, Alassane Ouattara.

      At a glance

      • Politics: Civil war in 2002 split country between rebel-held north and government-controlled south; 2007 power-sharing deal held out prospect of peace; 2010 presidential poll led to further violence
      • Economy: Ivory Coast is world’s leading cocoa producer; UN sanctions imposed in 2004 include an arms embargo

      Country profiles compiled by BBC Monitoring

      This theme was also adopted by Mr Guei, who had Alassane Ouattara banned from the presidential election in 2000 because of his foreign parentage, and by the only serious contender allowed to run against Mr Guei, Laurent Gbagbo.

      When Mr Gbagbo replaced Robert Guei after he was deposed in a popular uprising in 2000, violence replaced xenophobia. Scores of Mr Ouattara’s supporters were killed after their leader called for new elections.

      In September 2002 a troop mutiny escalated into a full-scale rebellion, voicing the ongoing discontent of northern Muslims who felt they were being discriminated against in Ivorian politics. Thousands were killed in the conflict.

      Although most of the fighting ended in 2004, Ivory Coast remained tense and divided. French and UN peacekeepers patrolled the buffer zone which separated the north, held by rebels known as the New Forces, and the government-controlled south.

      After repeated delays, elections aimed at ending the conflict were finally held in October 2010. But the vote ushered in more unrest when the incumbent, Laurent Gbagbo, refused to concede victory to the internationally recognised winner, Alassane Ouattara.

      The ensuing four-month stand-off was only ended when Mr Ouattara’s forces overran the south of the country, finally capturing Mr Gbagbo and declaring him deposed. In November 2011, Mr Gbagbo was transferred to The Hague to stand trial at the International Criminal Court on charges of crimes against humanity.

      Officials have blamed several security incidents since then on disgruntled supporters of Mr Gbagbo.

    • D
    • Djibouti
    • E
    • Egypt
    • Equatorial Guinea
    • Eritrea
    • Ethiopia
    • G
    • Gabon
    • Gambia
    • Information:
      Vinasha Productions Limited is an independent film producer and media consultancy company. It describes  itself as the “Birthplace of Gambian Cinema” in the country’s nascent movie industry. This is to a large extent true as they have had over 10 years of local broadcasting production with numerous credits to their name. However, much of that production is in the form of videos for the retail market. This is due to the dearth of cinemas in The Gambia.The company is also among the leading media consultants, planning, purchasing and advertising agencies, and continues to provide Total Media Solutions to major institutions in The Gambia. Some of these organisations are Standard Chartered Bank,Gamtel, Gamstar Insurance, Shell, Concern Universal, Punjabi Trading and Trust Bank Ltd., to name but a few.In 2007 they signed a 2-year broadcast contract with GRTS. Catalogue:
      Among their catalogue are:-the mini series “Banjul Cops: Chasing Manhood” 2003 starring the crime-fighting duo of Modou Musa Ceesay and Babette Lind. The film was The Gambia’s first ever TV detective series.”Arrou” Prevention – starring: Modou Musa Ceesay, Awa Gassama, Alagie Saihou Saar, Habibatou Jallow.”Amm Sahout” Nothing Lasts Forever – starring Modou Musa Ceesay, Awa Gassama and Mamie Jeng.”Teey” Calm”Lou Waay Def” Whatever One Does”Gambia Beat”

      “Sounds of the Smiling Coast”

      “Battle of Sankandi” – Period drama based on a true story

    • Ghana
    • Guinea
    • Guinea-Bissau
    • K
    • Kenya
    • Government promotion of film making[edit]

      The Kenyan government has made a conscious effort to develop Kenyan cinema as an industry, and in 2005 the government helped establish the Kenya Film Commission (KFC) which came into operation in mid-2006. The Kenya Film Commission aims to promote the industry not only within the country but to raise international awareness and interest from potential investors. The commission falls under the Ministry of Information and Communication that is headed by Samuel Poghisio. It supports the Kenyan film industry by providing facilities for screenings and filming and organising various workshops to educate local film-makers seeking to enter film production. It is also responsible for advising on licensing and immigration; as well as facilitate the filming process for film makers. The Commission is also establishing a database that will list film directors, producers, agents, local talent, stakeholders and service providers to raise the profile of the Kenyan film industry.[5][6]

      In 2012 the Ministry of Education introduced film production in schools, colleges and universities drama festival. This project coordinated by Dr. Simon Peter Otieno of the department of Literature, University of Nairobi saw schools, colleges and universities attempt film-making in the festival. In 2012 the films ‘Conflicted Successions’ by the Kenya Institute of Mass Communication, ‘Time’ by Elimu Academy, ‘A Time to Cry’ by Chogoria Girls’ High School, ‘Benji’ by Lions Primary School, ‘Flashback’ by Karima Girls’ high school, ‘The First Drop’ by Kayole One Primary School, ‘A Story is Told’ by Nyagatugu Boys’ High School, ‘Angel’ by Kakamega High School, ‘The Contest’ by Kenya High School, ‘Anne-Brittah’ by Bulimbo Girls’ High School, ‘Dreams of Tomorrow’ by OLM Mugoiri Girls’ High School, ‘Last Friday at Ten’ by Gitwe Girls’ High School and ‘Pressure Points’ by Menengai High School were major highlights. Being the first year of the festival the quality of productions was surprisingly high. A few of the presentations were experimental and lacked the technical quality.

      2013 saw what would be arguably the first Science Fiction story in Kenya. This was a film titled ‘Messenger’ by Rwathia Girls’ High School that presented a story of an alien that steals the identity of a form one student. Other highlights in the secondary school category included ‘A Rose for Salome’ by Chogoria Girls’ High School, ‘The Red Rose’ by Nyagatugu Boys’ High School, ‘A Letter to Auntie’ by TumuTumu Girls’ High School, ‘Sins and Scenes’ by Our Lady of Mercy Mugoiri Girls’ high School, ‘Black Rose’ by St. Annes Secondary School Lioki, ‘The Portrait’ by Kangubiri Girls’ High School, ‘Tumours of Bitterness’ by Othaya Boys’ High School and ‘Kosa La Mwisho’ by Kajembe High School.

      The primary school category saw the screening of ‘Words’ by Elimu Academy. In the colleges and universities category the film to mention was ‘Remember the Name’ by the Kenya Institute of Mass Communication, ‘Love Taken to a Mysterious Place’ by United States International University, ‘The Twist’ by Mount Kenya University, ‘Let’s Play Pretend’ by Moi University. In a bid to promote participation in this new genre in the drama and film festival, the Ministry of Education introduced genres like documentary, cinematic poetry, screen-narrative, screen-dance and adverts. In 2013 many Early Childhood institutions participated in the screen poetry category. The screen-dance was presented by Kangubiri Girls’ High School, Kayole One Primary School and Nkamathi Primary School.

      In Nairobi the Hot Sun Foundation was established to help train and expose the talents of young people living in the areas of poverty and educate them in filmmaking, acting, script writing, camerawork. The foundation was responsible for producing films such as Kibera Kid.

    • L
    • Lesotho
    • Closely reliant with south Africa, in which the country is landlocked
    • Liberia
    • The UN maintains some 15,000 soldiers in Liberia. It is one of the organisation’s most expensive peacekeeping operations.
    • Liberia Film Institute Receives Major Support from the German Government for Capacity-Building and Nationwide Ebola Prevention Outreach The Liberia Film Institute (LFI) through Accountability Lab has received a remarkable grant from GIZ, the German International Cooperation acting on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), for a five month project to assist the Institute in contributing to international efforts to stem the spread of Ebola and to strengthen its internal capacity. Divine Key Anderson, Founder and Executive Director of LFI notes that the award “motivates and challenges us to change Liberian society with films which represent a great effort in the fight against the Ebola Virus Disease.” The assistance will allow LFI to fight Ebola by empowering Liberians with visual tools. As Anderson notes, “we have to develop interesting ways to educate. Film is like the sea, it can move the largest ship in any direction and society is like a ship, without navigational knowledge it is headed for doom.” Project goals will be achieved through strengthening the institutional capacity of LFI, deepening the technical expertise of Liberian film education offerings, and bolstering communication efforts around Ebola that educate the Liberian public on the realities of the virus. Anticipated results of this intervention are stronger awareness of Ebola, an increased emphasis on accountability within Ebola relief efforts, and over the long-term, increased momentum for a movement to build citizen capacity and empower youth to push for positive social change in Liberian communities.
    • Libya
    • Media outlets have proliferated in the post-Gaddafi era

      Libya’s media environment has undergone a dramatic transformation in recent years.

      The overthrow of Colonel Gaddafi in 2011 ended a 42-year dictatorship during which the media sector was under almost total state control and no independent or critical voices were tolerated.

      The media environment since then has boomed, with the mushrooming of both independent and state-owned outlets.

      There has been a proliferation of privately-owned satellite TV channels and internet usage has taken off from previously very low levels, with social media platforms such as Facebook registering high growth rates.

      The revival has, however, been accompanied by a sense of chaos, fostered in part by the central government’s inability to impose law and order.

      The private media scene remains unregulated, but in September 2013 a new Information Ministry was set up, though the authorities have not so far enacted a new media law.

      As the country saw out 2014, the chaotic media environment reflected the turmoil in Libya’s political and security situation.

      Two rival governments each had a television station with the same name and the same logo (Libya al-Wataniyah ie. National Libyan TV). There were two competing official news agencies with the same name.

      More than 20 TV stations, and dozens of radio outlets, broadcast from Libyan cities and from Middle East media hubs. Many of them are privately-owned.

      BBC World Service Arabic broadcasts on 91.5 FM in Tripoli, Benghazi and Misrata.

      The press has similarly seen a radical shift. Former state-affiliated dailies have closed and new titles have appeared, some of them short-lived. Benghazi has emerged as a publishing hub. But there are few daily newspapers and print runs are small.

      There were around one million internet users by December 2013 (Internetworldstats.com). Facebook, Twitter and YouTube were pivotal in carrying raw news material for a world audience during the revolt.

      Facebook is a favourite platform for Libyans to read news and to comment on events. Libyans use Twitter as individuals and as activists. Many tweets on #Libya are in English.

    • M
    • Madagascar
    • Malawi
    • Government says it will support the Film Industry considering the important role it plays to the development of the country.Speaking during the handover ceremony of the Investment and Development Strategy for the Film Industry in Malawi on Tuesday, Minister of Information, Tourism and Culture Kondwani Nankhumwa said film makers would promote tourism sites in the country.Nankhumwa said, “films contributes positively to the development of the country such that tourism sites and culture of the people would be known at the international level.Government will be ready to fully support strategy which has been submitted to the ministry by the Film Association of Malawi (FAMA).”We are going to collaborate with the partners in this project to map the way forward and boost the film industry in the country,” he said.

      He further said government was looking forward to seeing the film industry taken to another high level, saying it will create some opportunities for employment.

      The Film industry in the country is yet to experience some changes in the production of movies because the Censorship and Cultural Policy are yet to be reviewed and approved by the Cabinet.

      President of the Film Association of Malawi (FAMA) Ezaius Mkandawire said the association is proud and hopeful that the government would implement and play its part as the film strategy submitted contains its expectations and role.

      “On our own as an association we can’t achieve anything, but we can achieve a lot if we work as a team. Therefore, we are asking every citizen to take part in the boosting of the film industry because we have big potential to do very well,’ he said.

      Mkandawire however said partners could help in capacity building, promote gender and culture, finance, education on film production and marketing.

    • Mali
    • Mali’s broadcast and print media were long hailed as being among the freest in Africa.

      But a serious deterioration set in following a March 2012 military coup and a months-long rebellion and Islamist insurgency in the north.

      The collapse of state control in the north led to a “trial of strength” between local media and Islamists, says Reporters Without Borders. The rebels banned Western music on radio and demanded that programming feature Koranic recitations.

      Journalists fled the area. Many radio stations and newspapers were forced to close, or were attacked and vandalised by rebels. Some of these outlets resumed operation in 2013 as relative stability returned.

      In the south, under the military-backed interim government, journalists were detained and assaulted.

      Radio is Mali’s most popular medium. The Media Foundation for West Africa said in 2012 that 369 private stations were on the air.

      Newspaper circulation is low and mainly confined to newsstands in Bamako and the main towns. French-language, state-run L’Essor is the only title that claims national distribution.

      The BBC broadcasts in Bamako (88.9 FM) and Radio France Internationale is widely available on FM.

      By 2012, 2.2% of Malians were online (ITU).

RANK COUNTRY
(OR DEPENDENT TERRITORY)
JULY 1, 2015
PROJECTION[1]
% OF
POP.
AVERAGE
RELATIVE
ANNUAL
GROWTH
(%)[2]
AVERAGE
ABSOLUTE
ANNUAL
GROWTH
[3]
ESTIMATED
DOUBLING
TIME
(YEARS)[4]
ALTERNATIVE
FIGURE
DATE SOURCE
1  Nigeria. the biggest film producer (Nollywood) and exibitor outside south Africa. Silverbird and Filmhouse, being the leaders. 185,043,000the worlds 7th largest country & an ex British colony. Christian ,Muslim mix 16.07 3.02 5,417,000 23 164,294,516 2011 Official estimate
2  EthiopiaAddis Ababa, now has its first digital three screen complex. 90,076,000independant people, who only teamed up to Russia in recent history 7.82 2.41 2,123,000 29 90,076,012 2015 Official estimate
3  Egypt 88,523,000 7.69 2.29 1,981,000 31 87,743,000 December 28, 2014 Official population clock
4  Democratic Republic of the Congo 71,246,000 6.19 2.86 1,984,000 25
5  South Africa 54,844,000 4.76 1.56 842,000 45 54,002,000 July 1, 2014 Official estimate
6  Tanzania 48,829,000 4.24 2.97 1,407,000 24 47,421,786 2014 Official estimate
7  Kenya 44,153,000 3.84 2.77 1,192,000 25 41,800,000 2013 Official estimate
8  Algeria 39,903,000 3.47 2.07 808,000 34 39,500,000 January 1, 2015 Official estimate
9  Sudan 38,435,000 3.34 3.07 1,146,000 23 38,435,252 2015 Official estimate
10  Uganda 35,760,000 3.11 3.09 1,071,000 23 34,856,813 August 28, 2014 Preliminary 2014 census result
11  Morocco 33,656,000 2.92 1.06 352,000 66 33,479,100 December 28, 2014 Official population clock
12  Ghana 27,714,000 2.41 2.48 671,000 28 27,043,093 2014 Official estimate
13  Mozambique 25,728,000 2.23 2.74 686,000 26 25,727,911 2015 Official estimate
14  Angola 25,326,000 2.20 3.43 839,000 21 24,383,301 May 16, 2014 Preliminary 2014 census result
15  Ivory Coast 25,302,000 2.20 3.06 752,000 23 23,821,000 2013 Official estimate
16  Madagascar 23,053,000 2.00 2.73 613,000 26 21,842,167 2013 Official estimate
17  Cameroon 21,918,000 1.90 2.65 565,000 27 21,917,602 2015 Official estimate
18  Niger 18,880,000 1.64 3.86 701,000 18 17,138,707 December 10, 2012 Final 2012 census result
19  Burkina Faso 18,477,000 1.60 3.28 586,000 22 17,322,796 2013 Official estimate
20  Mali 17,796,000 1.55 3.30 568,000 21 14,528,662 April 1, 2009 Final 2009 census result
21  Malawi 16,307,000 1.42 3.18 502,000 22 15,805,200 July 1, 2014 Official estimate
22  Zambia 15,474,000 1.34 3.00 451,000 23 15,473,905 2015 Official estimate
23  Senegal 14,150,000 1.23 2.92 401,000 24 13,508,715 November 19, 2013 Final 2013 census result
24  Chad 13,675,000 1.19 3.57 471,000 20 11,039,873 May 20, 2009 Final 2009 census result
25  Zimbabwe 13,503,000 1.17 1.17 156,000 60 13,061,239 August 17, 2012 Final 2012 census result
26  South Sudan 12,519,000 1.09 5.95 703,000 12 8,260,490 April 22, 2008 2008 census result
27  Rwanda 11,324,000 0.98 2.61 288,000 27 10,515,973 August 15, 2012 Final 2012 census result
28  Tunisia 11,118,000 0.97 1.04 114,000 67 10,982,754 April 23, 2014 Preliminary 2014 census result
29  Somalia 10,972,000 0.95 1.54 166,000 45 10,806,000 July 1, 2014 Official estimate
30  Guinea 10,935,000 0.95 2.30 246,000 30 10,628,972 April 2, 2014 Preliminary 2014 census result
31  Benin 10,750,000 0.93 3.51 365,000 20 9,983,884 May 11, 2013 Preliminary 2013 census result
32  Burundi 9,824,000 0.85 2.93 280,000 24 9,823,828 2015 Official estimate
33  Togo 7,065,000 0.61 2.87 197,000 25 6,191,155 November 6, 2010 Final 2010 census result
34  Eritrea 6,895,000 0.60 5.49 359,000 13 6,536,000 July 1, 2014 Official estimate
35  Libya 6,521,000 0.57 1.56 100,000 45
36  Sierra Leone 6,513,000 0.57 2.57 163,000 27 6,190,280 2013 Official estimate
37  Central African Republic 5,545,000 0.48 3.11 167,000 23 3,859,139 December 8, 2003 2003 census result
38  Republic of the Congo 4,706,000 0.41 2.98 136,000 24 3,697,490 April 28, 2007 2007 census result
39  Liberia 4,046,000 0.35 2.09 83,000 33 3,476,608 March 21, 2008 Final 2008 census result
40  Mauritania 3,632,000 0.32 2.43 86,000 29 3,631,775 2015 Official estimate
41  Gabon 2,382,000 0.21 3.97 91,000 18
42  Namibia 2,233,000 0.19 1.45 32,000 48 2,113,077 August 28, 2011 Final 2011 census result
43  Botswana 2,176,000 0.19 1.92 41,000 36 2,024,904 August 22, 2011 Final 2011 census result
44  Gambia 2,022,000 0.18 3.27 64,000 22 1,882,450 April 15, 2013 Preliminary 2013 census result
45  Equatorial Guinea 1,996,000 0.17 4.23 81,000 17 1,622,000 2010 Official estimate
46  Lesotho 1,908,000 0.17 0.21 4,000 330 1,894,194 2011 Official estimate
47  Guinea-Bissau 1,788,000 0.16 2.58 45,000 27 1,520,830 March 1, 2009 Final 2009 census result
48  Mauritius 1,263,000 0.11 0.16 2,000 437 1,261,208 July 1, 2014 Official estimate
49  Swaziland 1,097,000 0.10 0.92 10,000 76 1,018,449 May 11, 2007 2007 census result
50  Djibouti 961,000 0.08 2.67 25,000 26 864,618 July 1, 2011 Official estimate
51  Réunion (France) 857,000 0.07 0.82 7,000 85 840,974 January 1, 2013 Official estimate
52  Comoros 783,000 0.07 2.62 20,000 27 724,300 July 1, 2012 Official estimate
53  Western Sahara[5] 656,000 0.06 4.29 27,000 16 555,000 July 1, 2011 Official estimate
54  Cape Verde 525,000 0.05 1.35 7,000 52 491,875 June 16, 2010 Final 2010 census result
55  Mayotte (France) 229,000 0.02 2.69 6,000 26 212,600 August 21, 2012 2012 census result
56  São Tomé and Príncipe 194,000 0.02 2.65 5,000 27 179,200 May 13, 2012 Final 2012 census result
57  Seychelles 97,000 0.01 1.04 1,000 67 90,945 August 26, 2010 Final 2010 census result
58  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (UK) 4,000 0.00 0.00 0 - 4,255 February 10, 2008 2008 census result
Total 1,151,307,000