26) Government media department by country
- Algerian Cinema also has to deal with a blockade imposed from within the country. The political turmoil and the lack of local production companies and distributors has caused a production decline.In addition to that, between 1998 and 1999, the Algerian government, took three questionable measures: it shut down the Centre Algérien des Arts et de L’industrie Cinématographiques (CAAIC), the Centre of L’Entreprise Nationale de Production Audiovisuelle (ENPA) and the Agence Nationale des Actualités Filmées (ANAF), because they did not make any profit.At that time and according to industry professionals, cinema in Algeria was dying. Moreover, many cinemas in the capital were replaced by night clubs and fast-food restaurants.Since then a number of film professionals have tried to ring the alarm to combat piracy and illegal videos, but they have not had much success. Their major achievement has been the rescue of film equipment from bankrupt companies.Despite all the challenges and difficulties, some quality films have been made in Algeria. Worth to mention are Rachida by Yamina Chouikh, The Beacon (Al-Manara) by Belkacem Hadjadj, Ten Million Centimes by Bashir Draiss, and Bab el-Oued City by Merzak Allouache.In the last few years the Algerian government seemed to raise its consideration over the cinema industry. For example, the National Centre for Film and Audiovisual Arts (CNCA) was established in 2004, receiving human resources and enough material to help revitalize Algerian cinema.The policies to break the isolation of the Algerian cinema were characterized by the organization of big cultural events such as the Year of Algeria in France, Algeria: Capital of Arab Culture, and the Panafrican Festival. These events contributed to the revitalization of cinema and financed many private and co-produced national films. Although these festivals did not mean the start of a sustainable film industry, they have led to the emergence of many young film-makers and raised the ceiling on government funding for all types of films.
Angola press Wed, 05 Feb 2014 11:38 – Updated Wed, 05 Feb 2014 11:37
Government to re-launch film market with national cinema plan
Luanda – The Angolan government aims at valorising the Angola brand, through the promotion of the national cultural identity, with the implementation of National Cinema Development Plan, as part of “I love Angola” project.
- According to Divaldo Martins, representative of the referred programme which focuses on the creation of a range of technical, material and financial supports and training for produces of national cinema.According to the source, candidates should submit their projects that will be previously analysed by a panel of experts that will decide on the feasibility, relevance and quality of the project.Divaldo Martins, who was speaking at the presentation of the plan, explained that in the financial perspective, the promotion plan will award AKZ 2.5 million for each of the projects to be positively evaluated.
- The most important filming in Botswana has so far been of wildlife documentaries, including those released through the U.S. National Geographic Society. No major feature films have yet actually been shot in Botswana. The Government’s Botswana TV station is scheduled to begin transmission in late 1999.The biggest fiction film ever made supposedly about Botswana – but not actually made here – was The Gods Must Be Crazy (1980), with a sequel (1989) and a further sequel called Fei zhou he shang (1991). All three starred a South African actor called N!xau. The first two were filmed in the Northern Transvaal, and the third in Hong Kong. (“The Gods Must be Crazy” is also the name of the TNT Botswana Travel Page. Also not filmed in Botswana is the fictiona film Sands of the Kalahari starring Stuart Whitman and a troupe of baboons.
- Burkina Faso
The film projections are often grainy and the sound distorted, yet the cinemas are packed. And this year, Fespaco, which runs until 2 March, is something different – a film festival with a conscience. The theme is African cinema and public policy, and more than 100 films are being screened, of which 20 will be competing for the coveted Etalon d’Or. Many of films cover some of the most hotly debated topics in Africa and elsewhere. Here’s a selection of the films:
Operating in a turbulent political climate, Burundi’s media are subject to self-censorship and occasional government censorship.
In June 2013 President Nkurunziza approved a new media law which critics condemned as an attack on press freedom. The law forbids reporting on matters that could “undermine national security, public order or the economy”.
However, diverse political views are aired and the opposition press does function, albeit sporadically.
Newspaper readership is limited by low literacy levels. Radio is the main source of information for many Burundians. The government runs TV, radio and press outlets.
- FODIC in 1973 assisted local film production
- Cape Verde
Transcript of Copy of Cabo Verde Film CommissionBenefits of Film Tourism
One of the major economic benefits that film-induced tourism can bring to the local community is constant tourism revenue. Film locations can be all-year, all-weather attractions which improves problems of seasonality in the tourism industry. There are a number of studies that reveal the increasing visitation numbers at film locations. Source: Hudson & Ritchie (2006) (Cactus Tourism Journal)Cabo Verde
Film commissions are generally operated by various agencies of government, local mayor’s office and business and economic development departments.
Film Commissions attract film and video production to their area to accrue the locally-realized benefits of hiring local crews and talent, renting local equipment, using hotel rooms, rental cars, catering services, or any number of goods and services supplied on location. Not to mention the hiring of support staff, patronage of local establishments will have a positive effect on the local economy.A Film Commission’s primary goal is to attract filmmakers and videographers to their respective regions by providing services that a producer would be hard-pressed to acquire without their assistance.
Madeira Film Commission
Screen tourism has the ability to generate a wider focus of influence far beyond the shooting locations. It can encourage visitation to both ‘associated’ sites and Cape Verde in general;
In general, tourists are attracted to sites seen in a film.
Cape Verde is dependent on its language, history, culture and landscape to maintain its presence on the world stage as a major tourist destination. This fits well with the nature of screen tourism.Movie production incentives are tax benefits offered to encourage film production. Different countries have offered increasingly competitive incentives to lure productions away from other countries.Incentives may include:
Sales Tax Exemption
Free Services including research for screenwriters or liaison work with local government agencies.
or other Perks.Proponents of these programs point to increased economic activity and job creation as justification for the credits.Cape Verde has become a world-class destination. With this growth comes an opportunity to establish a much needed Cabo Verde Film Commission. The potential to introduce viewers from around the globe to the breathtaking beauty of Cape Verde through film is endless. Tourism is a precious resource for Cape Verde. With major airports in Cape Verde, tourists from Italy, Germany, the UK, Ireland, United States and China are finding their way to Cape Verde in significant numbers, numbers that will continue to grow well into the future.
There is currently a worldwide network of more than 300 Film Commissions representing six continents. All are devoted to the business of facilitating film and television production activity which generates billions of dollars annually.
On-Hand & On-Location: Services of Film Commissions
Product placement is a form of audiovisual commercial communication consisting of the inclusion of or reference to a product, a service or the trade mark thereof so that it is featured within a film or programme. Product placement stands out as a marketing strategy because it is the most direct attempt to derive commercial benefit from “the context and environment within which the product is displayed or used”
Past films made in Cabo Verde
Corporate Sponsorship in a film provides a way for a company to increase visibility of their brand on an international scalestarts hereDEVELOPMENT
This diagram shows how the different ‘pressure points’ for intervention to maximize screen tourism might be found at specific phases of the process of making a film. It shows that probably the earliest point at which a film or tourism agency, or other entities, might intervene to develop screen tourism would be during a film’s script development. If, for example, a tourism agency discovered that a film was being developed about a famous local character or author, this could be an opportunity to commence discussions about possible ways of encouraging tourism should the film achieve distribution.IDEA
Cape Verde My Love
Industry OverviewThe motion picture and entertainment industry is
gaining prominence as one of the largest growth and
export industries in the World. Because of this, there
are more films being made than ever before, making
competition fierce. However, the industry is
doing more to take in these films and profit
from them. Film companies have shown
especially strong growth over the past decade.
Critics regard these films with respect and
admiration because they end to be the
most fresh, distinct voices in the art of
filmmaking. Film industry insiders also pay
close attention to these films, because the
return on investment can be surprisingly high.While attracting business to their area, they also attract visitors. Film scenes at a particular location are in themselves “soft-sell” vehicles that also promote that location as a desirable site for future tourism and industry.
Film Commission Structure
- Central African Republic
- The development of a Chadian film industry has suffered from the devastations of civil war and from the lack of cinemas, of which there is only one in the whole country. The first Chadian feature film, the docudrama Bye Bye Africa, was made in 1999 by Mahamat Saleh Haroun. His later film Abouna was critically acclaimed, and his Daratt won the Grand Special Jury Prize at the 63rd Venice International Film Festival. The 2010 feature film A Screaming Man won the Jury Prize at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival, making Haroun the first Chadian director to enter, as well as win, an award in the main Cannes competition. Issa Serge Coelo directed Chad’s two other films, Daresalam andDP75: Tartina City
Radio is the dominant medium. The national state-run network competes with regional services and private stations. There is a national TV service and a handful of private TV stations.
Broadcasts from the neighbouring French island of Mayotte can be picked up in some areas.
Most papers publish weekly; a feeble advertising market, poverty and poor distribution inhibit circulation. The leading titles are Al-Watwan, published on Grand Comore, and Kwezi, published on Mayotte.
The authorities have a tight hold on the media. Journalists risk arrest and detention, and newspapers have been suspended and radio stations put off the air over reports deemed offensive to the government.
Radio France Internationale is relayed on FM in the capital.
- Congo Democratic Republic of
The Congolese media operate against a backdrop of political power struggles and violent unrest.
Reporters Without Borders says media workers face arrest, threats and violence. Reporters exposing corruption are at particular risk.
A local organisation, Journalist In Danger, identified a “growing crackdown” on the media in 2011, which intensified during elections in November. It said the credibility of news organisations had been badly damaged by the behaviour of journalists during the campaign.
Nonetheless, the press is able to criticise government bodies, and some publications serve as mouthpieces for opposition parties.
The DR Congo has around 175 newspapers and magazines, 300 radio stations and 50 TV stations.
Radio is the dominant medium; a handful of stations, including state-run RTNC, broadcast across the country. Three TV channels have near-national coverage.
The UN Mission in DR Congo (Monuc) and a Swiss-based organisation, Fondation Hirondelle, operate Radio Okapi. The network employs mostly-Congolese staff and aims to bridge political divisions. It is one of DR Congo’s leading stations.
The BBC broadcasts on FM in Kinshasa (92.7), Lubumbashi (92.0), Kisangani (92.0), Goma (93.3) and Bukavu (102.2).
Radio France Internationale (RFI), which is widely available on FM, is the most popular news station, according to the US-based Committee to Protect Journalists. The authorities have been known to suspend RFI’s local relays over the station’s coverage.
By December 2011, there were more than 915,000 internet users (via Internetworldstats.com). Most people use cafes to access the internet. Text messaging services were blocked for a time after disputed elections in late 2011.
After the Political and military crisis of 2011/12 began a new era:
Three years after the end of the crisis, as fresh investment pours into the country, Côte d’Ivoire is experiencing a similar transformation. Nowhere is that revival more evident than in Abidjan, a freewheeling city of fast cars and fast fortunes whose elegant boutiques and restaurants offering French wine and haute cuisine long ago earned it a reputation as “the Paris of West Africa.” As construction cranes swoop over the skyline and massive building projects give the city’s infrastructure a much-needed reboot, there is a sense that the pro-business government of President Alassane Ouattara, a former International Monetary Fund (IMF) official, is trying quite literally to build over the rubble of the past. For the country’s once-vibrant film industry, hopes are high that the current boom could also offer a fresh start as an emerging crop of filmmakers struggles to bring Ivorian stories to the big screen.
Controlling access to the Red Sea, Djibouti is of major strategic importance, a fact that has ensured a steady flow of foreign assistance.
During the Gulf War it was the base of operations for the French military, who continue to maintain a significant presence.
France has thousands of troops as well as warships, aircraft and armoured vehicles in Djibouti, contributing directly and indirectly to the country’s income. The US has stationed hundreds of troops in Djibouti, its only African base, in an effort to counter terrorism in the region.
There are two state broadcasters and an increasing number of private broadcasters. Figures from the CIA World Factbook state more than 98 television channels in 1995, and 57 AM and 14 FM radio channels in 1999. Pan-Arab channels such as Al-Jazeera are also very popular among viewers, especially for news, as private broadcasters are forbidden to broadcast their own news, instead only focusing on entertainment or music. The Ministry of Information controls content in the state-owned broadcast media. Egypt was the first Arab nation to have its own satellite, Nilesat 101, which allows the Egyptian TV and film industry to supply much of the Arab-speaking world with shows from its Media Production City. The previously tight controls on state TV and radio gave way to even and fair coverage of all political parties involved in the Egyptian presidential election of 2005, a first for Egyptian media. However in 2006 several journalists working for the Cairo branch of the Qatar-based Al-Jazeera were detained for investigating subjects such as police brutality and “harming the country’s reputation
Flora Gomes is an internationally renowned film director; his most famous film is Nha Fala (English: My Voice). Gomes’s Mortu Nega (Death Denied) (1988) was the first fiction film and the second feature film ever made in Guinea-Bissau. (The first feature film was N’tturudu, by director Umban u’Kest in 1987.) At FESPACO 1989, Mortu Nega won the prestigious Oumarou Ganda Prize. Mortu Nega is in Creole with English subtitles. In 1992, Gomes directed Udju Azul di Yonta, which was screened in theUn Certain Regard section at the 1992 Cannes Film Festival. Gomes has also served on the boards of many Africa-centric film festivals
Eritrea is the only African country to have no privately-owned news media. The state of media freedom has been described as “scandalous” by watchdog Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
The government has maintained a monopoly over domestic radio and television since independence. The few privately-owned newspapers were all closed in 2001 as part of a crackdown on the opposition.
The state media strongly backs the government while accusing the opposition and the West (especially the USA) of undermining the country and of supporting its main enemy,
Most of Ethiopia’s print, television, and radio outlets are state-controlled, and the few private print media often self-censor their coverage of politically sensitive issues for fear of being shut down.
The six independent print publications that closed in 2014 did so after a lengthy campaign of intimidation that included documentaries on state-run television that alleged the publications were linked to terrorist groups. The intimidation also included harassment and threats against staff, pressure on printers and distributors, regulatory delays, and eventually criminal charges against the editors. Dozens of staff members went into exile. Three of the owners were convicted under the criminal code and sentenced in absentia to more than three years in prison. The evidence the prosecution presented against them consisted of articles that criticized government policies.
For the most part, the government of Gabon controls the media, though arguably somewhat less stringently than in a number of other African states. Starting in 1998 the government began to limit freedom of expression in the private media more rigorously. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists’ annual report for 2001, “Since 1998, the CNC has been using licensing regulations to trim the number of private radio stations. There are still a few apolitical private and community radio stations in Gabon, and opposition newspapers appear regularly. But local journalists say self-censorship is more pervasive than ever.”
Newspapers are almost entirely politicized. The one daily paper that exists in the country and is distributed on a national basis is government affiliated. Private weekly, bi-weekly, and monthly papers number about ten to twelve. Opposition parties produce most of the country’s newspapers.
A “pervasive climate of fear” forces most journalists to practice self-censorship or flee the country, says Reporters Without Borders (RSF).
The law provides for jail terms for libel or sedition. Journalists are regularly arrested on “flimsy and superficial” charges, says Freedom House.
State-run Radio Gambia broadcasts tightly-controlled news, which is relayed by private radio stations. Radio France Internationale is available on FM in Banjul.
The government operates the only national TV station.
There were 272,000 internet users by July 2014 (InternetLiveStats.com). Many news websites and blogs are based overseas and some are run by exiled journalists, says Freedom House.
The authorities block websites that are critical of the government.
Ghana enjoys a high degree of media freedom and the private press and broadcasters operate without significant restrictions.
The media are free to criticise the authorities without fear of reprisals, says Reporters Without Borders.
The private press is lively, and often carries criticism of government policy. Animated phone-in programmes are staple fare on many radio stations.
Radio is Ghana’s most popular medium, although it is being challenged by increased access to TV.
Scores of private FM stations crowd the dial; many of them are based in the main towns and cities. Most of them are chasing a limited amount of advertising revenue. State-run Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) runs national TV and radio networks.
The BBC broadcasts on 101.3 FM in Accra, and on 104.7 FM from Sekondi-Takoradi, the capital of Western Region.
By 2012, 17% of Ghanaians were using the internet (ITU). Mobile phones are widely used to access online content.
The Ministry of Information has existed under different names since independence in 1957. It has metamorphosed from being called Ministry of Information and Culture, Ministry of Information and Tourism, Public Relations Secretariat, Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Media Relations, Ministry of Information and Presidential Affairs (MIPA), Ministry of Information and National Orientation (MINO) and currently its new name; The Ministry of Information and Media Relations.
Ministry : Ministry of Information and Media Relations
Minister : Mahama Ayariga
Postal Address : P.O Box M 41 Accra
Telephone : (+233-302) 229870
Fax : (+233-302) 229870
The Vision of the Ministry is the attainment of a free, united, informed and prosperous society with good governance through development communication.
The Ministry of Information exists to facilitate a two-way free flow of timely and reliable information and feedback between the Government and its various publics and to assist in the development, co-ordination of policy; to monitor and evaluate the implementation of programmes and activities by the Sectors Agencies.
1. To strengthen institutional capacity for effective policy formulation and execution.
2. To ensure free flow of public information in pursuance of the open Government policy.
3. To effectively and efficiently monitor and evaluate public responses to Government policies, programmes and activities and provide timely feedback to Government.
4. To project the image of the country in collaboration with other agencies to attract foreign investment in consonance with Government policy.
5. To co-ordinate activities of the Presidency towards ensuring uniformity and focus in executing policies, programmes and activities.
The Agencies of the Sector are;
– General Administration
– Information Services Department (ISD)
– Ghana News Agency (GNA)
– Ghana Broadcasting Corporation (GBC)
– National Film and Television Institute (NAFTI)
INFORMATION SERVICES DEPARTMENT (ISD)
This Department is the major operational agency of the Ministry. It serves as Government’s major public relations organisation both locally and abroad.
The Department is mandated to:
Create awareness of Government policies, programmes and activities.
Promote Ghana ‘s international marketing agenda.
Provide Public Relations support to Government Ministries, Departments, Agencies and Ghana ‘s missions abroad.
Get feedback from the public to government for policy reinforcement or redirection.
Its modus operandi include, organising regular weekly interactions with the media on Tuesdays and Thursdays on various issues and Government programmes; produce various audio-visual documentaries for public education and outreach programmes.
The Department has contributed tremendously to the dissemination of information in the past through the use of visual, audio, print and face-to-face interaction through drama, films and talk shows, mounted on the ubiquitous cinema vans which criss-crossed the whole country and is determined to do more for the country with the advent of ICTs.
When the portal www.ghana.gov.gh was established in 2002, the Department assumed additional responsibility by discharging its traditional functions electronically through the provision of information and other public services through the Internet. The facility has proven to be one effective communication tool to disseminate Government’s information to the public and to get feedback to provide the way forward in our national development. The Portal links MDAs with websites and other institutions.
The Information Services Department also collaborates with the Ministry of Communications and other stakeholders in the management of the Community Information Centres. There are other host of roles that the department play.
GHANA NEWS AGENCY (GNA)
The GNA plays a major role in contributing to the political, social and economic development of the nation through data-gathering, processing and dissemination through wire service. The Agency is re-engineering the process of transforming itself into an autonomous news agency.
GHANA BROADCASTING CORPORATION (GBC)
Ghana Broadcasting Corporation was founded to provide radio and television broadcasting services for general reception in Ghana. The legislation that basically set up GBC as a Corporation is the National Liberation Council Decree 226 (NLCD 266) of 1968.
Ghana Broadcasting Corporation has the mandate to inform, educate and entertain as well as engage in commercial broadcasting through the sale of paid adverts and exploitation of other sources of revenue related to the broadcast business.
GBC was founded in the era when it was the responsibility of Governments to set up and run media establishments as an essential tool for national development. Throughout the years, GBC as a public service broadcaster has performed creditably. It has made significant contributions not only to the spread of knowledge but also an instrument of education and a source of entertainment.
Broadcasting to a predominantly a non-literate society, GBC has over the years contributed in a far greater way to the enlightenment and mobilisation of the Ghanaian populace for national development.
NATIONAL FILM AND TELEVISION INSTITUTE (NAFTI)
NAFTI is a tertiary institution for the training of film and television production techniques in the country. The institute organises various seminars and workshops in film and television production for practitioners as well as staff development courses. It exists to augment the number of media practitioners for an improved quality of work.
government maintains marginal control over broadcast media; single state-run TV station; state-run radio broadcast station also operates several stations in rural areas; a steadily increasing number of privately owned radio stations, nearly all in Conakry, and about a dozen community radio stations; foreign TV programming available via satellite and cable subscription services (2011)
1 state-owned TV station and a second station, Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP) Africa, is operated by Portuguese public broadcaster (RTP); 1 state-owned radio station, several private radio stations, and some community radio stations; multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
The highly-competitive press sector is the most sophisticated in the region. The print media are dominated by two publishing houses, the Nation and Standard.
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) ranked Kenya at 90th (out of 180 countries) in its 2014 global Press Freedom Index. A controversial new system of media regulation introduced in 2013 has drawn protests from media organisations and human rights groups.
Kenya Film Commission
The Kenya Film Commission (KFC) was established by the Kenyan government in 2005. However only coming into full function in mid-2006. The Kenya Film Commission was formed with the aim of promoting the Kenyan film industry locally as well as internationally. For the international community looking to film in Kenya the Commission offers detailed information on locations; offer liaison services on behalf of the government; advise on recce’s, film licensing and immigration; as well as facilitate the filming process for film makers.
The Kenya Film Commission falls under the Ministry of Sports,Culture and the Arts.The board appointed by the minister comprises board members: Mr. Chris Foot as the Board Chair, Ms Judy Bisem, Ms Njoki Muhoho, Mr. Julius Lamaon, Mr. Michael Onyango, Mr. Mwaniki Mageria and Mr. Felix Mugabe
The Kenya Film Commission supports the Kenyan film industry by providing facilities for screenings and filming. As well as organising various workshops that will be a source of education on production for local film-makers. The Commission is also establishing a database that will list film-makers, agents, local talent, stakeholders and service providers of the Kenyan film industry.The Kenya Film Commission is also a full members of the Association of Film Commissions International (A.F.C.I)
Radio is the most-popular medium. As well as domestic outlets, South African radio and TV stations can be received.
Commercial and private radios are on the air alongside state-run Radio Lesotho – the only national station. The sole TV station is state-run. BBC World Service broadcasts on 90.2 FM.
The government generally respects media freedom and the private press carries opposition views. But the threat of defamation suits has led to self-censorship, reports US-based Freedom House.
Many media outlets rely heavily on government advertising.
There were just under 84,000 internet users by December 2011 (Internetworldstats.com).
The Morija Arts & Cultural Festival is a prominent Sesotho arts and music festival. It is held annually in the historical town of Morija, where the first missionaries arrived in 1833.
Government says it will support the Film Industry considering the important role it plays to the development of the country.
Speaking during the handover ceremony of the Investment and Development Strategy for the Film Industry in Malawi on Tuesday, Minister of Information, Tourism and Culture Kondwani Nankhumwa said film makers would promote tourism sites in the country.
Nankhumwa said, “films contributes positively to the development of the country such that tourism sites and culture of the people would be known at the international level.
Government will be ready to fully support strategy which has been submitted to the ministry by the Film Association of Malawi (FAMA).
“We are going to collaborate with the partners in this project to map the way forward and boost the film industry in the country,” he said.
He further said government was looking forward to seeing the film industry taken to another high level, saying it will create some opportunities for employment.
The Film industry in the country is yet to experience some changes in the production of movies because the Censorship and Cultural Policy are yet to be reviewed and approved by the Cabinet.
President of the Film Association of Malawi (FAMA) Ezaius Mkandawire said the association is proud and hopeful that the government would implement and play its part as the film strategy submitted contains its expectations and role.
“On our own as an association we can’t achieve anything, but we can achieve a lot if we work as a team. Therefore, we are asking every citizen to take part in the boosting of the film industry because we have big potential to do very well,’ he said.
Mkandawire however said partners could help in capacity building, promote gender and culture, finance, education on film production and marketing.
Mauritania has one of the most open media environments of the Maghreb region. Broadcasting is open to private operators and there is relatively little government interference.
Mauritania topped all other Arab states in the 2014 Press Freedom Index issued by Paris-based Reporters Without Borders.
Journalists practice some self-censorship over sensitive topics, says US-based Freedom House. The media tend not to stray far from official reports, it adds.
State institutions hold shares in Television de Mauritanie (TVM) and Radio Mauritanie. There is easy access to pan-Arab and European satellite TV.
The BBC is available on FM in the capital (106.9) and in the second city, Nouadhibou (102.4). International radios from China, France and Germany are also relayed on FM.
There are at least 30 daily or weekly publications. Newspapers suffer from limited advertising, a poor distribution network and the growth of online media.
Internet access is unrestricted. There were more than 455,000 users by 2014 (Internetlivestats.com) – around 11% of the population. Facebook’s penetration rate stands at 5.3%, says a 2014 Dubai School of Government report.
The constitution guarantees freedom of expression and of the press. State-owned Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) radio and TV generally reflect government thinking. MBC is funded by advertising and a TV licence fee.
Daily newspapers and weeklies offer balanced coverage in several languages. They are often critical of both the government and the opposition parties. Two media groups – Le Mauricien Ltd and La Sentinelle Ltd – dominate the press scene.
Television is the most-popular medium. Multichannel TV is available in Port Louis.
BBC World Service is available via a mediumwave (AM) relay (1575 kHz). Radio France Internationale is relayed on FM.
There were nearly 324,000 internet users by December 2011 (Internetworldstats.com).
The broadcast media are either dominated by the state or reflect the official line. However, the private press has succeeded in breaking taboos over some sensitive topics, including allegations of high-level corruption.
Paris-based Reporters Without Borders notes that “religion, the king and the monarchy in general, the country and territorial integrity cannot be questioned.”
The Press Law provides for prison terms. The editor of Al-Massae daily was jailed for one year in 2011 for stories he had written about corruption and the activities of the security services. Media watchdogs said the move was a step backwards for press freedom.
The government owns, or has a stake in, RTM and 2M, Morocco’s main TV networks. Satellite dishes are widely used, giving access to French and pan-Arab stations.
There were 16.5 million internet users by June 2012 (Internetworldstats.com). There is no policy of widespread site filtering. Bloggers generally avoid sensitive topics, such as Western Sahara and the royal family.
Television is the most popular medium in towns and cities, with state-run TVM, the only national network, and private STV topping the ratings. Portuguese state TV’s African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are widely-watched.
State-run Antena Nacional radio is a key source of news. Private FM stations operate in most towns. BBC World Service broadcasts to Maputo (95.5 FM), Beira (88.5 FM), Xai Xai (100.9 FM), Nampula (88.3 FM) and Quelimane (95.3 FM).
Dozens of community radio and TV stations are funded by the government and Unesco. Print titles have little influence in the countryside because of high levels of illiteracy.
The constitution protects media freedom, but criminal libel laws deter total freedom of expression. The opposition says it receives inadequate coverage in the state media.
US-based Freedom House says privately-owned media face “sustainability issues” because of the state’s dominance over advertising.
By June 2012, more than one million Mozambicans were using the internet (Internetworldstats.com).
The Filmmakers Association of Namibia (FAN) is a membership organisation established with the aim of promoting growth and development in the Namibian film and video industry. It strives to do this through direct support of its members, but also through information sharing regarding developments both in the local and international film industries. FAN also aims to lobby support from the government, the Namibia Film Commission and other bodies in order to advance the Namibian film community as a whole.
What are FAN’s aims and objectives?
* To distribute and market the work of our members
* Redressing imbalances in the film and video industry
* Co-operate with foreign film crews
* Promote, initiate and direct resources toward the training needs of the Namibian film and video industry
* Facilitate fund raising for an investment in Namibian film and video production on a national basis
* Enter into dialogue with the government and all relevant parties in the development of Namibia and the contributions that can be made through a creative and dynamic film and video industry
* Lobby for the support of these objectives with government and all relevant parties, so as to promote FAN’s aims and objectives
The federal government has begun the process of privatising its media outfits across the country with the appointment of consultants to evaluate the companies and make recommendations to it. The media outfits include: News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) Nigeria Television Authority (NTA); Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) and the Nigerian Film Corporation (NFC). Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE) over the weekend, paid a visit to NAN to see the facilities on ground and have a chat with management and staff of the news agency.
When commercialised, the media outfits would now fix their rates; prices and charges for services rendered on commercial basis; capitalise assets; borrow money and issue debenture stocks where necessary and sue and be sued in their corporate names as the need may arise. Acting Managing Director of NAN, Joe Eje Okhiku, observed that special consideration should be taken in the process of commercialising NAN since it was started as a social service provider unlike other government owned media.
– See more at: http://www.balancingact-africa.com/news/broadcast/issue-no2/investment/nigeria-commercializ/bc#sthash.KFJ74gyM.dpuf
State TV and radio reach the largest audiences, and state-owned publications predominate in the print sector.
Radio – the main source of news – had a role in the 1994 genocide. Notorious “hate” station Radio Tele Libre Mille Collines (RTLM) was a vehicle for virulent anti-Tutsi propaganda.
Reporters Without Borders accused officials of “reinforcing news control” in the run-up to 2010 elections. The watchdog says government “hounding” of journalists “forces them into exile or often results in their arrest”.
Newspaper readership is limited and press titles often exercise self-censorship.
The BBC can be heard via FM in Kigali (93.9), Karongi (93.3) and Butare (106.1). The Voice of America and Deutsche Welle broadcast on FM in Kigali.
By December 2013, just over one million, or 8.7 per cent, of Rwandans were online (Internetworldstats.com). Critical bloggers are often based abroad, notes US-based Freedom House.
Sao Tome & Principe
Senegal has traditionally enjoyed one of the most unrestricted press climates in the region.
But media freedom is threatened by “physical attacks on news media, jamming of radio broadcasts, abusive prosecutions and the jailing of journalists”, Reporters Without Borders said ahead of polls in 2012.
Self-censorship arises from laws which ban reports that discredit the state, incite disorder or spread “false news”. Nevertheless, private media often criticise the government.
Radio is an influential medium. Commercial and community stations have mushroomed.
There are nearly 20 daily newspapers. Foreign publications circulate freely and multichannel pay TV is readily available. BBC World Service (105.6 MHz) and Radio France Internationale are available on FM in Dakar.
By December 2011 there were just under two million internet users (Internetworldstats.com). Access is unrestricted.
During a trip to attend a meeting of the Southern African Broadcasting Association (SABA), managing director and co-founder of the Africa Film Factory, Rahul Nehra, realized that the stories of the African continent, which represents about a billion people, were not being told enough through the medium of films.
After a series of meetings with the Chief Executive of the Seychelles Broadcasting Corporation (SBC) Antoine Onezime and the head of SABA, Namibian media chief Albertus Aochamub, it was decided to begin a long-running project to produce African international cinema, with the majority of the films to boast the island backdrop of Seychelles as a film location.
In an interview with SNA, Nehra said the intention was to initiate a film-making collaboration in Seychelles between other African countries with established film industries, such as Nigeria and South Africa, utilizing experience and financial backing from the Indian ‘Bollywood’ film industry.
– See more at: http://www.seychellesnewsagency.com/articles/927/Telling+African+stories+in+paradise++Seychelles+film+industry+gets+big+boost+with+Africa+Film+Factory#sthash.Nb00N5qo.dpuf
Media freedom in Sierra Leone has its limits; media rights monitors say high-level corruption is a taboo topic, with officials using libel laws to target errant journalists.
Challenges facing broadcasters include unreliable power supplies, poor funding and low advertising revenues. There are dozens of radio stations, most of them privately owned.
A national public broadcaster, the Sierra Leone Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC), was formed in 2010 by a merger of the former state-run broadcaster and a UN radio network.
BBC World Service can be heard on FM in Freetown (94.3), Bo (94.5) and Kenema (95.3). Voice of America and Radio France Internationale broadcast on FM in Freetown.
Dozens of newspapers are published in Freetown, despite low literacy levels. Most of them are privately-run and are often critical of the government.
By 2014 there were 92,000 internet users (Internetlivestats.com).
Somalia’s disintegration is reflected in its fragmented and partisan media.
The media operate in a hostile environment. Somalia is one of the most dangerous countries in the world to be a journalist, says US-based Human Rights Watch.
The US-based Committee to Protect Journalists includes Somalia in its index of countries where the murders of journalists go unpunished. “Elusive armed insurgent groups have terrorised the media beyond the reach of Somalia’s fragile law,” it says.
Journalists and media outlets complain about intimidation at the hands of state security agencies.
Nevertheless, professionally-run media outlets have emerged – in particular, FM radios with no explicit factional links.
The TV and press sectors are weak and radio is the dominant medium. There are around 20 radio stations, but no national, domestic broadcaster.
Many listeners tune to Somali-language media based abroad, in particular the BBC Somali service. The BBC transmits on shortwave and on FM in Mogadishu (91.1), the Somaliland capital Hargeisa (89.0), and elsewhere.
Somali satellite channels are a significant part of the TV scene. Most of these are based in the UK.
Somalis abroad maintain an active online presence. But domestic web access is held back by poor infrastructure. There are more than 163,000 internet users (Internetlivestats.com, September 2014), representing 1.5 per cent of the population.
Social media use is on the rise. The most popular destinations are Twitter and Facebook. Islamists use social media to promote their aims while their opponents mount strong rebuttals.
In secessionist Somaliland and Puntland the authorities maintain a tight hold on broadcasting.
Film Incentive (Film Incentive)
The South African Government offers a package of incentives to promote its film production and post-production industry. The incentives consist of theForeign Film and Television Production and Post-Production incentive to attract foreign-based film productions to shoot on location in South Africa and conduct post-production activities, and the South African Film and Television Production and Co-Production incentive, which aims to assist local film producers in the production of local content. The South African Emerging Black Filmmakers incentive, a sub-programme of the South African Film and Television Production and Co-production Incentive, which aims to assist local emerging black filmmakers to nurture and grow them to take up big productions and thus contribute towards employment creation.
Creating a film industry in South Sudan from scratch
In a village near South Sudan’s capital, Juba, two women tentatively approach a small corrugated iron hut. They have come from the north to reclaim the land that was theirs before a two-decade conflict between Sudan and what is now South Sudan.
A man emerges, starts shouting and pulls a gun. They run, screaming down the road but stop abruptly mid-stride when a young man, who has been watching intently from across the street, shouts: “Cut!”
This is the set of one of South Sudan’s first homemade movies, written, directed and produced by the Woyee Film and Theatre Industry, a collective of young South Sudanese who are driving the country’s burgeoning arts scene.
South Sudan is the world’s newest country after its people voted to secede from the north in a referendum last January – and it is busy rebuilding its economy and its cultural identity in the wake of the civil war.
Our big dream is to make it like the Nigerian film industry”
Woyee’s Daniel Danis
Ongina O Amos, one of the collective’s members, explains that “woyee” is a chant of praise in South Sudanese.
“If you say woyee it gives you courage to do what you want to do.”
That is what the collective is about, motivating South Sudanese to build up the country’s economy and its arts scene from within.
They are young – all their members are under the age of 30 – hard-working, multi-skilled, multi-lingual and are creating an industry where nothing existed before.
Woyee had a unique beginning. Its founding members met while in a Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya at the height of their country’s civil war.
It began in 2000 as a theatre group, made up of young students who were eager to keep themselves busy in the camp. At its head was 14-year-old Daniel Danis, who fled Sudan when he was seven years old.
Together they wrote and performed short plays that dealt with issues affecting young refugees, such as HIV/Aids, domestic violence and women’s rights.
In the next few years the group had come to the attention of various non-governmental organisations [NGOs] within the camp – which began hiring them to spread educational messages. They learned film-making skills from FilmAid International.
When the war ended in 2005, individuals started to return home, but they resolved to continue working together.
Now with more than 70 members, an office in the country’s capital and a feature film under their belt, Woyee has gone from strength to strength.
Last February they released Jamila, the first feature film to be produced entirely by South Sudanese people.
Juba’s only cinema was destroyed during the war so the film had to be screened in a local cultural centre. More than 500 people showed up on the first day including government officials, the media and NGOs.
They decided to hold a second screening attracting an even bigger crowd.
“South Sudanese couldn’t believe Sudan had a movie of its own,” says Mr Danis.
“The movie really looked like it was from another country that was stable or had peace for a long time. They didn’t believe it was South Sudanese until they saw the local names.”
When the audience saw the quality of the film, comparisons were immediately drawn to Nollywood, Nigeria’s multi-million dollar home movie industry.
“Our big dream is to make it like the Nigerian film industry,” says Mr Danis. “That is why we named it Woyee Film and Theatre Industry not Company.”
But the group are thoroughly realistic about the limits of South Sudan’s film industry.
“We are starting from the root level and we are thinking beyond,” says Kululu Elgebena, another member working on the latest film. “In 30 years’ time we will see ourselves trying to compete with the rest of the world.”
Every time we go to the Ministry of Information there is a lot of bureaucracy so we get frustrated”
Woyee’s Daniel Danis
All members of the collective are volunteers who have other jobs to get by and spend every spare hour they can making films. Mr Danis is a journalist at a local radio station, others work in local businesses and many are still students.
“That is the culture that we have nurtured since we’ve been in the refugee camp,” says Mr Danis. “We have to do things for free, to help ourselves.”
But they suffer from a constant shortfall in funding and equipment – until 2010 they did not even have a camera.
However last year the UN Development Programme funded Woyee to stage a series of community performances around the elections in 2010.
The actors worked for free and they put that money to buying two film cameras from Nairobi. They have managed to earn enough to keep their Juba office running by renting them out to people outside the collective.
Eager to get their first film out to as many viewers as possible, Woyee has distributed the DVD around the country free of charge.
But the vast majority of households in South Sudan have no electricity, let alone DVD players so this is an ineffective way to get the film to the masses.
As well as Jamila, they have created a series of 14 short films that tell stories of village life and offer advice on how to deal with problems such as theft, conflict and issues over land ownership.
“They are just based on social life of our people and would deal with topical issues… without touching on politics,” says Mr Danis.
The collective is very keen to have these films screened in communities around the country but they are increasingly frustrated with a lack of support from the government.
With only one television station in the country – the state-run SSTV – carrying a monopoly, it is extremely difficult to show their films on TV.
“Every time we go to the Ministry of Information there is a lot of bureaucracy so we get frustrated,” he says.
Getting their films to the outside world is just as difficult. They cannot upload films on to the internet as bandwidth is low and it takes too long.
But these logistical problems have yet to stem the creativity and enthusiasm of Woyee’s members.
They are currently working on a film based on the life story of Dr John Garang, a hero of the South Sudan’s independence movement who led the Sudan People’s Liberation Army during the country’s civil war.
“We really want to screen them in the communities and show the people that we now deserve to watch these things,” says Mr Danis.
Sudanese broadcasting is highly restricted and state TV and radio reflect government policy. Pre-censorship ensures that the news reflects official views.
Sudan ranked among the bottom 10 countries in the 2014 Reporters Without Borders press freedom index. “News is controlled, the media are under surveillance and journalists are harassed by the security forces,” the watchdog has said.
Satellite dishes are a common sight in affluent areas and pan-Arab TV stations are popular.
Unlike in most other Arab countries, radio remains a major element in the news media environment. The state runs the main radio networks. There is a handful of private FM radios in Khartoum; most of them focus on entertainment or Islam. Dutch-based Radio Dabanga aims to reach listeners in Darfur via shortwave.
The private press carries opposition views, but the state uses its powers to influence what is published.
Sudan had 9.3 million internet users by July 2014, comprising around 24% of the population (Internetworldstats). Increased access to the internet and official curbs on traditional media have brought a rise in the use of social media.
According to web filtering monitoring body OpenNet Initiative (ONI), “Sudan openly acknowledges filtering content that transgresses public morality and ethics or threatens order.” Blogging is “subject to scrutiny and can incur serious consequences”.
Swaziland is surrounded by and relies on South Africa for trade
Swaziland is virtually homogenous, most of the population being of the same tribe. Economically, it relies on South Africa, which receives almost half of Swazi exports and supplies most of its imports.
Tanzania’s media scene, once small and largely state-controlled, developed rapidly following the advent of the multi-party era in the mid 1990s.
Television was a latecomer: state TV launched in 2001, several years after the first private station. TV viewing is eroding radio’s traditional dominance.
Although the growth of the broadcast media has been hindered by a lack of capital investment, dozens of private FM radio stations are on the air, most of them in cities.
News from international radios – including the BBC, Voice of America and Germany’s Deutsche Welle – is carried by many stations.
Government-owned media are “largely biased” toward the ruling party, says US-based Freedom House.
The mainland and Zanzibar have separate media policies. Many islanders can pick up broadcasts from the mainland and read the mainland Tanzanian press.
By June 2012, 5.6 million Tanzanians were online (Internetworldstats.com).
Private media have proliferated; there are dozens of commercial and community radios and weekly newspapers, as well as a handful of private TV stations.
However, many private media firms have shaky finances and lag behind state-owned rivals in attracting advertising revenue.
Radio is the most popular medium, particularly in rural areas. The main TV station is government-owned Television Togolaise. The government also operates Togo-Presse daily.
While press freedom is legally guaranteed, this is often ignored by the government, US-based Freedom House reports. Impunity for crimes against journalists has created a “tense and illiberal” media environment, the NGO adds.
The BBC broadcasts in the capital on 97.5 FM. Also on air in Lome is Gabon’s Africa No 1. Radio France Internationale broadcasts on FM in Lome and Kara.
There were 356,000 internet users by June 2010 (Internetworldstats).
The Tunisian media have relished greater freedoms, and have been in flux, since the 2011 popular revolt.
Under the former regime, press and broadcasters were tightly controlled. Since then, the number of broadcast and print outlets has increased, as has their freedom to report and debate political and social issues.
State TV – which used to toe the government line – has changed tack, giving airtime to the former opposition.
However, some journalists say Ben Ali era-style censorship remains.
The state broadcaster has two national TV channels and several radio networks. Egyptian, French and pan-Arab satellite TVs have a large following.
Tunisia has a developed telecom environment, with a high rate of mobile phone ownership and relatively cheap broadband.
There were around 4.2 million internet users by June 2012 – 39% of the population (Internetworldstats.com).
Use of social media during the 2011 protests prompted commentators to describe the events as a “Facebook victory” and a “Twitter revolution”.
Many Tunisians – 52% – select Facebook as a preferred news source, according to a 2013 market survey.
Pervasive filtering ended with the fall of Mr Ben Ali. Since then, officials have blocked Facebook pages set up by cyber activists, and courts have ordered bans on pornographic sites.
All broadcasters transmitting from Zimbabwean soil, and many of the main newspapers, toe the government line.
The main pro-government dailies, the Harare-based Herald and the Bulawayo-based Chronicle, are tightly controlled by the Information Ministry. The private press, which is relatively vigorous in its criticism of the government, has come under severe pressure.
In 2010, newly-licensed title NewsDay hit the streets, becoming the first privately-owned daily to publish in seven years. Several other papers followed. The private press also comprises several weeklies, including The Zimbabwean, which is produced in London and South Africa.
However, cover prices are beyond the reach of many readers and publishers have been hit by escalating costs.
Draconian laws and institutions, along with prison sentences for “publishing false news”, are used to clamp down on critical comment. Journalists who fail to register with a government body risk imprisonment.
Radio is the main source of information. Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC) operates TV and radio stations under the umbrella of state-owned Zimbabwe Broadcasting Holdings (ZBH).
Two national private FM radio stations are licensed – one to a company owned by a supporter of Mr Mugabe, the other to a majority state-owned publisher.
Overseas-based radios transmit into Zimbabwe: Voice of the People, set up by former ZBC staff with funding from the Soros Foundation and a Dutch organisation, leases a shortwave transmitter in Madagascar.
From the US, government-funded Voice of America (VOA) operates Studio 7, which aims to be a source of “objective and balanced news”.
Radio broadcasts by foreign stations deemed hostile to the government are subject to deliberate interference.
There were around 2.5 million internet users by December 2013 (Internetworldstats.com). US-based Freedom House says the internet is nominally free from government interference. However, the medium is relatively expensive and prone to disruption because of power cuts.